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Safety Symbols These symbols alert you to possible dangers. Safety Goggles Always wear safety goggles to protect your eyes in any activ- ity involving chemicals, flames, or heating, or the possibility of broken glassware. Laboratory Apron Wear a laboratory apron to protect your skin and clothing. Breakage You are working with break- able materials, such as glassware. Han- dle breakable materials with care. Do not touch broken glassware. Heat-resistant Gloves Use hand protec- tion when handling hot materials. Hot equipment or hot water can cause burns. Do not touch hot objects with your bare hands. Plastic Gloves Wear disposable plastic gloves to protect yourself from chemicals or organisms that could be harmful. Keep your hands away from your face. Dispose of the gloves according to your teacher’s instructions at the end of the activity. Heating Use a clamp or tongs to pick up hot glassware. Do not touch hot objects with your bare hands. Sharp Object Pointed-tip scissors, scalpels, knives, needles, pins, or tacks can cut or puncture your skin. Always direct a sharp edge or point away from yourself and others. Use sharp instruments only as directed. Electric Shock Avoid the possibility of electric shock. Never use electrical equip- ment around water, or when equipment is wet or your hands are wet. Be sure cords are untangled and cannot trip anyone. Discon- nect the equipment when it is not in use. Corrosive Chemical Avoid getting acids or other corrosive chemicals on your skin or clothing, or in your eyes. Do not inhale the vapors. Wash your hands when you are finished with the activity. Poison Do not let any poisonous chem- ical come in contact with your skin, and do not inhale its vapors. Wash your hands when you are finished with the activity. Physical Safety When an experiment involves physical activity, take precau- tions to avoid injuring yourself or others. Fol- low instructions from your teacher. Alert your teacher if there is any reason you should not participate in the activity. Animal Safety Treat live animals with care to avoid harming the animals or yourself. Working with animal parts or pre- served animals also may require caution. Wash your hands when you are finished. Plant Safety Handle plants only as directed by your teacher. If you are aller- gic to certain plants, tell your teacher before doing an activity in which plants are used. Avoid touching poisonous plants or plants with thorns. Wash your hands when you are finished with the activity. Flames You may be working with flames from a Bunsen burner, candle, or matches. Tie back loose hair and clothing. Follow instructions from your teacher about lighting and extinguishing flames. No Flames Flammable materials may be present. Make sure no flames, sparks, or exposed heat sources are present. Fumes When poisonous or unpleasant vapors may be involved, work in a ven- tilated area. Avoid inhaling vapors directly. Only test an odor when directed to do so by your teacher, and use a wafting motion to direct the vapor toward your nose. Disposal Chemicals and other used materials must be disposed of safely. Follow the instructions from your teacher. Hand Washing Wash your hands thor- oughly. Use antibacterial soap and warm water. Lather both sides of your hands and between your fingers. Rinse well. General Safety Awareness You may see this symbol when none of the other sym- bols appears. In this case, follow the specific instructions provided. You may also see this symbol when you are asked to develop your own procedure. Have your teacher approve your plan before you go further. 8 Biology Laboratory Manual A/Safety Symbols © Prentice-Hall, Inc.
consumption. 3. There have been mass extinctions in the past, and we’re probably in one now. Paleontologists have identified five points in Earth’s history when, for whatever reason (asteroid impact, volcanic eruptions a nd atmospheric changes are the main suspects), mass extinctions eliminated many or most species. The concept of extinction took a while to sink in. Thomas Jefferson saw mastodon bones from Kentucky, for example, and concluded that the giant animals must still be living somewhere in the interior of the continent. He asked Lewis and Clark to keep an eye out for them. Today, according to many biologists, we’re in the midst of a sixth great extinction. Mastodons may have been some of the earlie st victims. As humans moved from continent to continent, large animals that had thrived for millions of years began to disappear— mastodons in North America, giant kangaroos in Australia, dwarf elephants in Europe. Whatever the cause of this early wave of extinctions, humans are driving modern extinctions by hunting, destroying habitat, introducing invasive species and inadvertent ly spreading diseases. 4. Things that taste good are bad for you. In 1948, the Framingham Heart Study enrolled more than 5,000 residents of Framingham, Massachusetts, to participate in a long-t erm study of risk factors for heart disease. ( Very long term—the study is now enrolling the grandchildren of the original volunteers.) It and subsequent ambitious and painstaking epidemiological studies have shown that one’s risk of heart disease, stroke, diabetes, cer tain kinds of cancer and other health problems increases in a dose-dependent manner upon exposure to delicious food. Steak, salty French f ries, eggs Benedict, triple-fudge brownies with whipped cream—turns out they’re killers. Sure, some tasty things are healthy—blueberr ies, snow peas, nuts and maybe even (oh, please) red wine. But on balance, human taste preferences evolved during times of scarcity, when it made sense for our hunter-gatherer ancestors to gorge on as much salt and fat and sugar as possible. In the age of Hostess pies and sedentary lifestyles, those cravings aren’t so adaptive. 5. E=mc² Einstein’s famous equation is certainly one of the most brilliant and beautiful scientific discoveries—but it’s also one of the most disturbing. The power explained by the equation really rests in the c², or the speed of light (186,282 miles per second) times itself, which equals 34,700,983,524. When that’s your multiplier, you don’t need much mass—a smidgen of plutonium is plenty—to create enough energy to destroy a city. 6. Your mind is not your own. Freud might have been wrong in the details, but one of his main ideas—that a lot of our behaviors and beliefs and emotions are driven by factors we are unaware of—turns out to be correct. If you’re in a happy, optimistic, ambitious mood, check the weather. Sunny d ays make people happier and more helpful. In a taste test, you’re likely to have a strong preference for the first sample you taste—even if all of the samples are identical. The more often you see a person or an object, the more you’ll like it. Mating decisions are based partly on smell. Our cognitive failings are legion: we take a few anecdotes and make incorrect generalizations, we misinterpret information to s upport our preconceptions, and we’re easily distracted or swayed by irrelevant details. And what we think of as memories are merely stories we tell ourselves anew each time we recall an event. That’s true even for flashbulb memories, the ones that feel as though they’ve been burned into the brain: Like millions of people, [neuroscientist Karim] Nader has vivid and emotional memories of the September 11, 2001, attacks and their aftermath. But as an expert on memory, and, in particular, on the malleability of memory, he knows better than to fully t rust Page 2of 4 The Ten Most Disturbing Scientific Discoveries | Science & Nature | Smithsonian Magazi ... 8/6/2010 http://www.printthis.clickabilit .com/pt/cpt?action=cpt&title=The Ten Most Disturbing ...
AMDG 12. Cells communicate by generating, transmitting and receiving chemical signals. 13. Interactions within biological systems lead to complex properties. 14. Competition and cooperation are important aspects of biological systems. 15. Naturally occurring diversity among and between components within biological systems affects interactions with the environment. Science Pracice: 1. The student can use representations and models to communicate scientific phenomena and solve scientific problems. 2. The student can use mathematics appropriately. 3. The student can engage in scientific questioning to extend thinking or to guide investigations within the context of the AP course. 4. The student can plan and implement data collection strategies appropriate to a particular scientific question. 5. The student can perform data analysis and evaluation of evidence. 6. The student can work with scientific explanations and theories. 7. The student is able to connect and relate knowledge across various scales, concepts, and representations in and across domains. II. P OLICIES : Grading: Grade categories for the first semester 40% Tests/Quizzes: 20% Lab Work: lab exercise handouts or lab reports 20% Mastering Biology® and other assignments 20% semester exam(1 st semester only) Homework Policy: 1. Textbook reading, studying and Mastering Biology® will be a major part of this course's workload. Students should check Haiku daily. 2. Laboratory exercises will require some form of assessment. Students will be required to maintain a laboratory notebook. Students should expect to be tested on laboratory material in a quiz and/or as part of a unit test. 3. Other assignments will include reading and summarizing articles from Scientific American or other periodicals.
3. Water and the Fitness of the Environment KEY CONCEPTS 3.1 Polar covalent bonds in water molecules result in hydrogen bonding 3.2 Four emergent properties of water contribute to Earth’s fitness for life 3.3 Acidic and basic conditions affect living organisms 4. Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life KEY CONCEPTS 4.1 Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds 4.2 Carbon atoms can form diverse molecules by bonding to four other atoms 4.3 A small number of chemical groups are key to the functioning of biological molecules 5. The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules KEY CONCEPTS 5.1 Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers 5.2 Carbohydrates serve as fuel and building material 5.3 Lipids are a diverse group of hydrophobic molecules 5.4 Proteins have many structures, resulting in a wide range of functions 5.5 Nucleic acids store, transmit, and help express hereditary information Unit 2 The Cell 6. A Tour of the Cell KEY CONCEPTS 6.1 To study cells, biologists use microscopes and the tools of biochemistry 6.2 Eukaryotic cells have internal membranes that compartmentalize their functions 6.3 The eukaryotic cell’s genetic instructions are housed in the nucleus and carried out by the ribosomes 6.4 The endomembrane system regulates protein traffic and performs metabolic functions in the cell 6.5 Mitochondria and chloroplasts change energy from one form to another 6.6 The cytoskeleton is a network of fibers that organizes structures and activities in the cell
AMDG 12. What are the two basic types of cells and how are they similar to and different from each other? 13. What are the structural components of the cell and how do they function in keeping the cell alive? 14. How do photosynthesis and cellular respiration transfer energy and recycle matter in the biosphere? 15. What process do all cells go through to ensure the continuity of life? 16. What are the two types of cell division, what are their stages and what happens in each stage? 17. What is the molecular basis of inheritance for all living things? 18. How does DNA work? 19. How did Mendel's work lay the foundation for our understanding of modern genetics? 20. Why is the production of gametes different from the production of somatic cells? 21. What are the basic inheritance patterns? 22. What ideas shaped Darwin's thinking and how did he use these ideas and his own research to suggest evolution by means of natural selection? 23. What is natural selection? 24. How can populations evolve to form new species? II. Assessment Evidence: Grades: 1. Grade categories for the semester 40% Quizzes & Quarter Exam 20% Lab work(lab exercise handouts and occasional lab report) 20% Homework and special assignments 20% Semester exam 2. Extra credit: Only students who have NO MISSING graded assignments are eligible. Assignments will vary and will be made available during the semester. See Haiku for details 3. Grades updated on NetClassroom on a regular basis. Students should frequently monitor their progress and check for accuracy. Homework Policy: 1. Students will consult MasteringBiology for homework and Haiku for other assignments. 2. Assignments will include: MasteringBiology, graphing and analyzing data, and reading and summarizing articles from Scientific American or other periodicals. 3. Late homework will receive 10% deduction in credit per day past the due date and time posted on MasteringBiology.
AQUATIC INVASIVE SPECIES Invasive species are plants and animals that come into an area that is outside of where they originally lived. In Lake Erie, some invasive species have been introduced accidentally from ballast water