Estefani Martinez Diaz
Published on November 26, 2014
3 TABLE OF CONTENTS History of the Music 4 - Clasical Music 6 - Benefics of the Music 9 - The Mozart effect 11 Interview Lic. BORIS 13 Interview Lic. Gloria 15 4 HISTORY OF MUSIC It is unlikely that any human society (at any rate until the invention of Puritanism) has denied itself the excitement and pleasure of dancing. A recent discovery suggests that music is played much earlier than previously suspected -- and apparently by humans of a different species from ourselves. In 1995, deep in a cave in Slovenia occupied 45,000 years ago by Neanderthals, a flute was found. It was made from the leg bone of a young bear. Though broken at both ends, it still has four finger holes. In its prime it could produce at least four notes. By the beginning of recorded history, in Mesopotamia in about 3000 BC, a sophisticated harp is in use; its form, in the shape of a bow, suggests its descent from the more primitive musical bow. The lyre, a portable version of the same kind of instrument (resting on the lap rather than the ground) evolves soon after. The addition of metal instruments, made either of copper or bronze, completes the range available in classical civilizations. A copper trumpet of a simple kind is known in Egypt from about 1500 BC. Cymbals appear in Israel by 1000 BC. But the first society to make music a matter of state is further east, in China. Confucius selects music as his symbol of the harmony which everyone should strive for. In doing so he reinforces a long tradition in Chinese ancestor worship. Bronze bells are the preferred instruments in the ritual, and the Chinese skill in bronze-casting ensures that they are superbly made. Sonorous stone slabs and pottery flutes are also used. All have been found in tombs of the Shang dynasty (1600-1100 BC). Our word for music is provided by the Greeks. It means literally the art of the Muses. That very broad definition indicates the role of music in ancient Greek life. It is connected with the recital of poetry (when read to the lyre, the result is 'lyrics') and it accompanies the dancing of the chorus in the performance of drama. The Greeks are interested in musical theory (the Pythagoreans discover the mathematical basis of the octave) and they are the first people to devise a way of writing down music. As a result a few fragments of Greek music are the earliest examples to survive - including two hymns to Apollo carved in marble at Delphi in the 2nd century BC.