Adoption of Web 2.0 Technologies in Education for Health Profess
November 2, 2014 | By Linh Tinh |
More from Linh Tinh
Electronic Journal of e-Learning Volume 7 Issue 2 2009, (165 - 172) of Practice”, which potentially provide the greatest scope for learning through interaction and discussion (Moule, 2007). More recent developments argue that behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism are unable to adequately address learning that occurs outside of people (i.e. learning that is stored and manipulated by technology). They also fail to describe how learning happens within organizations. Therefore connectivism has been proposed as the “integration of principles explored by chaos, network, and complexity and self-organization theories” (Siemens, 2004). It recognises that learning is a process that occurs within nebulous environments of shifting core elements – not entirely under the control of the individual. Learning (defined as actionable knowledge) can reside outside of ourselves (within an organization or a database), is focused on connecting specialized information sets, and the connections that enable us to learn more are more important than our current state of knowing (Siemens, 2004). Web 2.0 technologies offer online environments that can support both constructivism and connectivism. Web 2.0 technologies are emerging as platforms to enable or encourage students to be collaboratively creating and sharing their own insights into current and emerging themes within their education. This “architecture of participation” has been described as “emphasising the pre-eminence of content creation over content consumption”, (Boulos & Wheeler, 2007, p3) and the use of Web 2.0 applications as “mind tools to stimulate reflection and actively involve learners in their own construction of knowledge” which have been proposed as a way to yield powerful learning experiences (McLean et al, 2007). It may also be important for healthcare professionals to be aware of the emerging technologies, and their potential development not only for their own use to inform practice, but also because the trend for patient and client use is likely to continue and increase. Whilst it seems Web 2.0 might offer the potential for online learning to support pedagogy in higher education there is little understanding of how and where it is being used to support healthcare education. In order to try and draw some understanding of current engagement this study aimed to explore issues influencing the implementation and use of e-learning by both early and late adopters and in so doing identified the level of Web 2.0 use. 2. Data collection The study included two phases of data collection. Initially data were collected through a survey questionnaire developed from the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) funded Managed Learning Environment Study survey tool ( http://www.mlestudy.ac.uk ). The Managed Learning Environment Study survey tool was adapted for use in the current study with the permission of JISC. Some of the original sections were re-worded or removed, leaving a total of 62 questions. It was recognised that not all elements of the survey would not necessarily be completed by all respondents, depending on their institutional position. An initial list was created from personal contacts. We also searched departments on the Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education Major Review of healthcare programmes reports listing: ( http://www.qaa.ac.uk/reviews/reports/healthReviews.asp and the Nursing and Midwifery Admissions Service institution listing: ( http://www.nmas.ac.uk/instit/index.html ). We added those HEAs not identified previously from the HS&P Subject Centre list of contacts. The HEA HS&P list contained a number of duplicates and no contact names. For reasons of confidentiality, names of key contacts from the HEA database were not divulged to the research team. A final sample of (n= 93) were sent a paper version of the survey. A second phase included case study visits to explore questionnaire responses in more detail. Four case study sites were identified from the responses to phase one using the criteria to include both early and late adopters of e-learning. In this study the terms early and late adopters reflect both the numbers of staff and students involved in e-learning and the variety of e-learning activities undertaken. Our definitions are therefore not consistent with Rogers (1995) definition of early and late adopters that suggested the early adopters lead revolutionary change and risk taking. At the case study sites visited we reviewed learning and teaching strategy documents and e-learning strategy documents for the faculty and university, interviewed key staff and viewed e-learning materials using an outline schedule. Focus groups were held with students in each site. www.ejel. org 166 ©Academic Conferences Ltd
Web2.0isnotanewweb,withnewlanguagesortechnology,newsites,newpages,etc.Some ofthemostremarkableresourcesofWeb2.0,likeblogsorwikis,comefromthenineties.But sometechnologiesarekeyforthedevelopmentofWeb2.0sites,asAjaxormash-ups.And everydayhundredsofnewsitesappearbuiltunderthespecificideasthatdefinetheWeb2.0. Web2.0isnotanewbusinessquestion,evenifitsuggestsnewopportunitiesforacommercial development. 1.2Whatitis WhenthepeopleatthebrainstormingthoughtabouthowtheWorldWideWebwaschanging, theyfoundsomekeydifferencesbetweenthenewsitesandtheolderones:anewwayof designingparticipation,hostingservices,andweb-basedcommunities,promotingcreativityand informationsharing.Theyfoundspecifictechnologieslikewikisandblogs,anewwayof creatingwebpageslikemash-ups,andamassiveuseofdescriptorsor tags inwhathasbeen definedasa folksonomies . So,Web2.0isatrendintheWorldWideWeb.Andthereisnotauniqueunderstandingofwhat isorisnot.Somepeopleinclude“Secondlife”asaWeb2.0siteandtechnologydespitethe factthatitisnotawebapplication-thesamegoesforNapsterorBitTorrent. TheinitialdescriptionofWeb2.0wasbasedonthefollowinglist(O’Reilly,2005): Web1.0Web2.0 DoubleClickGoogleAdSense OfotoFlickr AkamaiBitTorrent mp3.comNapster BritannicaOnlineWikipedia personalwebsitesblogging eviteupcoming.organdEVDB domainnamespeculationsearchengineoptimization pageviewscostperclick screenscrapingwebservices publishingparticipation contentmanagementsystemswikis directories(taxonomy)tagging("folksonomy") stickinesssyndication AndforO’Reilly,thekeytodecideifasiteeitherisorisnotWeb2.0isthissentence: TheWeb istheplatform .Whenrevisitingtheconceptlateron,O’Reillypointedouttootherelementslike therelevanceofthebusinessdimensionofthisrevolutionandthecollectiveintelligence (O’Reilly,2006). OtherwaystoapproachWeb2.0isthroughimages.Ipersonallyconsiderthatthevisualand audiovisualdimensionsarefeaturesofWeb2.0,eveniftheyarenotatthecoreofit.Between thecountlessmaps‘representing’Web2.0,Ihavechosenthesetwo: http://kosmar.de/wp- content/web20map.png Atagcloudthatusescolourandsizetobetter describetheweightofideasandtechnologiesonWeb 2.0.Tomakeyourowntagclouddefinitionyoucan use: http://tagcrowd.com/ http://www.internality.com/web20/ ThismapinSpanishcollectsawiderdescriptionof sitesandresources.Itsinteractiveversionsallowfor quicknavigationandhelptounderstandthecommon coreofthesites.ItispartofabookbyFumero& Roca(2007)publishedbytheOrangefoundation. eLearning Papers • www.elearningpapers.eu • 2 Nº 8 • April 2008 • ISSN 1887-1542
Gabriela Grosseck / Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 1 (2009) 478–482 479 There are already a growing number of actors from higher education sector who are exploring Web 2.0 technologies in their activities with students or as part of their PLE. It is important to realize that Web 2.0 has to share something new with higher education - the development of a clear picture of the features that might constitute a new ICT pedagogy in the 21st century: pedagogy 2.0 (Dron, 2006; McLoughlin & Lee, 2007; Hargadon, 2008). Table 1 renders some possibilities and examples of using Web 2.0 technologies by the authors of this article as a support for preparing and collecting didactic materials, evaluating and analyzing the progress made by students, putting together informative and formative presentations, time management, planning the timetable and the calendar of activities, developing projects in collaboration, digital storytelling, students eportfolios etc. Table 1 Models of integrating Web 2.0 technologies in HE Technology 2.0 Educational applications Blogging use blogs for real-world writing experiences pull class blogs together into one area for easy tracking quickly give feedback to students, and students to each other students use peer networks to develop their own knowledge update new information such as homework and assignments using comments in blogs can encourage students to help each other with their writing, and get responses to a question without getting the same answer twenty times etc. Microblogging classroom community, exploring collaborative writing, reader response, collaboration across schools, countries, project management, assessing opinion, platform for metacognition, conference or as part of a presentation or workshop, for reference or research, facilitating virtual classroom discussion, creating a learning experience, a Personal Learning Network use for dissemination of teachers’ publications and materials, locating original sources of ideas, quotes, allows for very focused and concrete feedback to students to refine their thinking and improve their skills, fostering professional connections, informal research, for storytelling, follow a professional, get feedback on ideas, event updates, live coverage of events, build trust, build a community etc. Wikis use for student projects; use for collaborating on ideas and organizing documents and resources from individuals and groups of students use as a presentation tool (as e-portfolios); as a group research project for a specific idea; manage school and classroom documents; use as a collaborative handout for students; writing: student created books and journaling create and maintain a classroom FAQ; as a classroom discussion and debate area; a place to aggregate web resources; supporting committees, working parties and university projects etc. Photo / Slides Sharing share, comment, and add notes to photos or images to be used in the classroom inspire writing and creativity; create a presentation using the photos use tags to find photos of areas and events around the world for use in the classroom. post student presentations to an authentic audience and get feedback from around the world; share professional development materials and have it available anywhere, anytime, to anyone; post presentations of special events Video Sharing video professional development on own terms; create an own subject specific videos with students; use video sharing sites to find videos on current issues etc. Syndication of content through RSS professional development, time saving; updated information in teaching area information coming from constraining sources; sharing work with other educators RSS feeds can potentially replace traditional email lists, reducing email overload RSS feeds can be used to keep course specific webpages current and relevant etc. Social Bookmarking create a set of resources that can be accessed on any computer connected to the internet; conduct research and share that research with peers track author and book updates; groups of students doing a classroom project sharing their bookmarks; rate and review bookmarks to help with students decide on usefulness of resources; setup a group tag in order to share educational resources share one del.icio.us account between a number of different subject specific educators in order to share resources with each other etc. Social Networking event support and continuation, team and community support, aggregation of social media applications, personal learning environments etc. (Cobbs, 2008) Other tools instant messaging increase the sense of community and accessibility which is required for collaborative learning; VoIP can promote international collaborations and understanding; calendars make calendar events, homework, anything you want available on mobile devices connected to the Internet survey and polls, online diagrams and web-based word processor, on-line spreadsheet, social search, mind mapping; virtual worlds - virtual conferences and seminars, team meetings and collaboration spaces, simulations etc.