Collaborative: People tending towards a collaborative style try to meet the needs of all people involved. These people can be highly assertive but unlike the competitor, they cooperate effectively and acknowledge that everyone is important. This style is useful when you need to bring together a variety of viewpoints to get the best solution; when there have been previous conflicts in the group; or when the situation is too important for a simple trade-off. Compromising: People who prefer a compromising style try to find a solution that will at least partially satisfy everyone. Everyone is expected to give up something and the compromiser him- or herself also expects to relinquish something. Compromise is useful when the cost of conflict is higher than the cost of losing ground, when equal strength opponents are at a standstill and when there is a deadline looming. Accommodating: This style indicates a willingness to meet the needs of others at the expense of the person's own needs. The accommodator often knows when to give in to others, but can be persuaded to surrender a position even when it is not warranted. This person is not assertive but is highly cooperative. Accommodation is appropriate when the issues matter more to the other party, when peace is more valuable than winning, or when you want to be in a position to collect on this "favor" you gave. However people may not return favors, and overall this approach is unlikely to give the best outcomes. Avoiding: People tending towards this style seek to evade the conflict entirely. This style is typified by delegating controversial decisions, accepting default decisions, and not wanting to hurt anyone's feelings. It can be appropriate when victory is impossible, when the controversy is trivial, or when someone else is in a better position to solve the problem. However in many situations this is a weak and ineffective approach to take. Once you understand the different styles, you can use them to think about the most appropriate approach (or mixture of approaches) for the situation you're in. You can also think about your own instinctive approach, and learn how you need to change this if necessary. Ideally you can adopt an approach that meets the situation, resolves the problem, respects people's legitimate interests, and mends damaged working relationships. Understanding the Theory: The "Interest-Based Relational Approach" The second theory is commonly referred to as the "Interest-Based Relational (IBR) Approach". This type of conflict resolution respects individual differences while helping people avoid becoming too entrenched in a fixed position. In resolving conflict using this approach, you follow these rules: Make sure that good relationships are the first priority: As far as possible, make sure that you treat the other calmly and that you try to build mutual respect. Do your best to be courteous to one-another and remain constructive under pressure. Keep people and problems separate: Recognize that in many cases the other person is not just "being difficult" – real and valid differences can lie behind conflictive positions. By separating the problem from the person, real issues can be debated without damaging working relationships. Pay attention to the interests that are being presented: By listening carefully you'll most- likely understand why the person is adopting his or her position.
About the Eight Causes According to psychologists Art Bell and Brett Hart, there are eight common causes of conflict in the workplace. Bell and Hart identified these common causes in separate articles on workplace conflict in 2000 and 2002. The eight causes are: 1. Conflicting resources. 2. Conflicting styles. 3. Conflicting perceptions. 4. Conflicting goals. 5. Conflicting pressures. 6. Conflicting roles. 7. Different personal values. 8. Unpredictable policies. You can use this classification to identify possible causes of conflict. Once you've identified these, you can take steps to prevent conflict happening in the first place, or you can tailor your conflict resolution strategy to fit the situation. How to Use the Tool Let's take a closer look at each of the eight causes of workplace conflict, and discuss what you can do to avoid and resolve each type. 1. Conflicting Resources We all need access to certain resources – whether these are office supplies, help from colleagues, or even a meeting room – to do our jobs well. When more than one person or group needs access to a particular resource, conflict can occur. If you or your people are in conflict over resources, use techniques such as Win-Win Negotiation or the Influence Model to reach a shared agreement. You can also help team members overcome this cause of conflict by making sure that they have everything they need to do their jobs well. Teach them how to prioritize their time and resources, as well as how to negotiate with one another to prevent this type of conflict. If people start battling for a resource, sit both parties down to discuss openly why their needs are at odds. An open discussion about the problem can help each party see the other's perspective and become more empathic about their needs. 2. Conflicting Styles Everyone works differently, according to his or her individual needs and personality. For instance, some people love the thrill of getting things done at the last minute, while others need the structure of strict deadlines to perform. However, when working styles clash, conflict can often occur. To prevent and manage this type of conflict in your team, consider people's working styles and natural group roles when you build your team.
Bad leadership can also be felt throughout the entire organization – only not in a good way. Corporate culture becomes a meaningless term where leaders claim it exists while employees shake their heads in frustration. There is a lack of clear, consistent communication from leadership to the employees. As a result, the office is run by rumour mill, politics and gamesmanship. Employees are uncertain of the company’s goals and objectives for success and they have no idea how they fit into that picture, or what their level of importance is toward making it happen. Decisions for promotions are not based on integrity or talent, but rather they are based on who can talk the biggest talk or who is deemed to be the least threatening to the current leadership team. Employees are taught play dirty against co-workers to get ahead by watching as it is continuously rewarded by leadership leading to the Lobster Syndrome of tearing one another down throughout the organization. The result of bad leadership is low morale, high turnover, and a decreased ability to have any sustainable success. To become a truly great company it takes truly great leaders. And there is a huge difference in bosses and leaders: Here are some great quotes that I love on being a great leader: o “You don’t lead by hitting people over the head —that’s assault, not leadership.” – Dwight Eisenhower o “ Lead and inspire people. Don’t try to manage and manipulate people. Inventories can be managed but people must be lead.” — Ross Perot o “ Great leaders are almost always great simplifiers, who can cut through argument, debate, and doubt to offer a solution everybody can understand.” — General Colin Powell o “Become the kind of leader that people would follow voluntarily; even if you had no title or position.” — Brian Tracy o “A true leader has the confidence to stand alone, the courage to make tough decisions, and the compassion to listen to the needs of others. He does not set out to be a leader, but becomes one by the equality of his actions and the integrity of his intent.” — Douglas MacArthur Companies cannot afford to have poor leadership if they want to truly succeed – and I don’t just mean in terms of financial success. I define success as far more than just
Name Course Title Page 2 of 2 1 Contents page (not included in word count and on a separate page) 2 Report Summary (not included in word count and on a separate page) (This section is very short. In a few sentences, summarise the contents of each of the parts of the Assignment and your main findings.) 3 (Outcome 1) (a) Detail each of the criteria you have been asked to look at in bullet point. (b) Please make sure all work is in your own words. If you wish to copy information from a website/book, make sure you include the resource in your bibliography. 4 (Outcome 2, 3, 4, 5, etc.) (a) Repeat above for each outcome. 5 Reflection This space is for you to reflect on the work you have completed and to identify and explain the effect this will have on your personal and professional development. 6 Bibliography (not included in the word count) List all websites, books, articles or resources you have used in Alphabetical Order. Word count = XXXX
Where have you been on holiday this year? Have you ever thought about all the different places available to visit on how they are organised and funded? Think of your holiday choice and identify which sector made this possible. The Travel & Tourism (T&T) industry is always changing and developing to meet the changing needs and perceptions of customers. The industry is dominated by the private sector and is made up of small and medium sized sector companies. It is dependent on new technologies and can be vulnerable to external pressures such as down turns in the economy. The British Tourist Authority (Visit Britain) estimated that there were at least 200,000 T&T businesses in the UK with most small to medium in size. The industry is still dominated by a small number of national and multinational companies. The differences between the sectors can be examined through the differences in ownership, aims and objectives and sources of funding. 1. Why is the T&T industry changing and developing? 2. Which sector dominates the T&T sector? 3. How many T&T business are estimated to exist in the UK? 4. How can you investigate the differences between the private, public and voluntary sectors? Private Sector These organisations are directly or indirectly in private ownership. They usually aim to make profits from the services and products they provide for their customers. The benefits go to the shareholders of the organisation. The main activities of the private sector are retail sales, catering, accommodation, entertainment, travel services and tourism. Many of the private companies are well known such as Virgin, Thomas Cook and British Airways. It is estimated that a handful of large organisations hold as much as 50% of the market. Travel and Tourism facilities provided by the private sector include hotels, theme parks, travel agencies and restaurants. The largest operators have considerable power and control the market. They can obtain substantial discounts from other travel business such as hotels and airlines. In some cases they actually buy the other parts of the supply chain. For example a tour operator could by an airline and hotel chain and use these purchases to put holiday packages together (e.g. Thomas Cook). 5. What are the main aims for the private sector? 6. How does private sector make a profit? 7. What are the main activities of the private sector? 8. Name 3 well known private sector companies? 9. What % of the market is dominated by the handful of large companies? 10. What are the advantages of being a large T&T company? 11. Why do large T&T companies try to by airlines and hotels?
To be read to the class as an example - as a group, learners make suggestions to insert into blank spaces. Learners are then tasked with re-writing each section in their own words to produce their own covering letters. Examples of previous learners' letters should also be used as a model but not left with learners to copy.
F ORMULAE L EVEL 2 ©West Nottinghamshire College 2 Excellence in skills development Contents Calculations Using Simple Formulae N1/L2.4 Page 3 - 5 Create Simple Formulae N1/L2.4 Page 6 - 8 Common Mathematical N1/L2.4 Page 9 - 10 Formulae in Use