May 20, 2014 | By sandy17 |
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The Congress of Vienna The Congress of Vienna was a series of meetings involving most of the european heads of the state held in Vienna, also known as the Concert of Europe. Klemens von Metternich was the one who organized the congress, he was the prince of Austria, he invited Prussia, Austria, and later Great Britain. The Congress of Vienna was held from September 1814 to June 1815, the main objective of this congress was to resize the main powers. The goals was to return the establishment, to pay back the damages of war, give back the territories, but also to create a series of buffer states ( Netherlands, Belgium, Piedmont) . The four Great Powers and France • Austria was represented by Prince Klemens von Metternich • Great Britain was represented by Viscount Castlereagh who was the foreign secretary. • Russia was controlled by Tsar Alexander I, he wanted to have the control of Poland and to promote the peaceful. • Prussia was represented by Karl August von Hardenberg, who was in that time the chancellor. • France was the fifth power and was represented by the foreign minister Talleyrand. There were some great dynasties of the main empires in Europe, those were Austria which was represented by the Habsburgs, Russia represented by The Romanoffs, France represented by the Bourbons, England represented by The Tudors and Prussia represented by the Hohenzollern that was a mix of the sacred romans and the germanic empire. In this Congress they decided to include the establishment of a confederated Germany which had the purpose to coordinate the economies of separate German speaking countries and to replace one of the empires, the one that was called as the Holy Roman Empire. The German Confederation was created by the 9th act of the Congress of Vienna on June 1815 and ending the war of the Sixth Coalition. The confederation was finally created and accepted by a second treaty called or known as the “ Final Act of the Ministerial Conference to Complete and Consolidate the Organization of the German Confederation” but was signed in 15 May 1820.
The division of Italy into independent states also played a role in the Congress of Vienna. The other countries that played a role but were not a great power, such as Denmark which was represented by Niels Rosenkrantz, Switzerland was represented by Charles Pictet, The Republic of Genoa represented by Agostino Pareto, Bavaria represented by Maximilian Graf, Hanover controlled by Georg Graf, and every state in Europe had a delegation in Vienna. (more than 200 states). In the congress of Vienna had two outcomes called “ The Holly alliance” and the “ Quadruple Alliance”. The Holly Alliance protected the Christian principles, as Metternich was known as the conservative leader. The Quadruple Alliance in which were the same members plus Great Britain, a military alliance to guarantee the principles of legitimacy and stability. The concept of Europe. An auxiliary accomplishment of the Congress of Vienna was the adoption of some standard rules of diplomacy. The final act of the Congress of Vienna was signed on 9 June 1815, Russia was allowed to keep Finland, Prussia was given two fifths of Saxony, The German Confederation with the 38 states was done under the presidency of the Austrian Emperor, The Netherland and the South Netherlands became a constitutional monarchy, Habsburg princes were returned to control of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, the slave trade was condemned and Freedom of navigation was guaranteed for many rivers, those were the most important products of this congress. The Congress's principal results, apart from its confirmation of France's loss of the territories annexed between 1795–1810, which had already been settled by the Treaty of Paris, were the enlargement of Russia. They also recognized that the boundaries and governments of 1789 could not be restored without modification or compromise. There had been too many changes in attitudes and loyalties that the rigid dogmas of legitimist were powerless to undo and also stabilized Europe and preserve Hapsburg power.
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