November 2, 2014 | By Jayden ジェイデン |
More from Jayden ジェイデン
The effect of role conflict on the self-esteem and well-being of dialectical and non-dialectical thinking 5 of the participants were measured through a 3 items questionnaire (adapted from Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985), for example “I am satisfied with my life” . For both questionnaires, the participants were required to rate a 7-item response scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree) as an answer to the questionnaires. All the items from each scale were then averaged to form a score.
The effect of role conflict on the self-esteem and well-being of dialectical and non-dialectical thinking 4 potentially causing a burnout. However, some researchers have argued that having multiple roles can cause reduction in time and energy due to expectation of role conflict and requiring a high amount of effort (Coser, 1974; Goode, 1960; Gove, 1984; Merton, 1957). Also, as a support to this hypothesis, studies have found that there is a correlation between the number of multiple roles and the intensity of role conflict and role overload. (for review, see Barnett & Hyde, 2011; Doress-Worters,1994), and these role conflicts and overloads results in the lowering of psychological well-being. (Bolger, DeLongis, Kessler, &Wethington, 1989; Coverman, 1989; O’Driscoll, Ilgen, &Hildreth, 1992). In this experiment, specifically, we were trying to investigate how people with dialectical thinking were able to cope with conflicting social roles. A general hypothesis was concluded, students with dialectical-thinking would show a higher self-esteem and well-being compare to students with non-dialectical thinking when role-conflict was present. Firstly, we had to understand the comparison between dialectical and non-dialectical thinking. People with dialectical thinking have better acceptance of conflict thus resulting in a more flexible self to cope with different roles in different environment. In contrast to that, people with non- dialectical have a lower tolerance in conflict, thus stable concept of self and prefer to stay in the comfort zone. It has been suggested that people with dialectical thinking have a greater tolerance towards conflicting roles. (Peng &Nisbett, 1999; Spencer-Rodgers, Williams, & Peng, 2010). To support this, according to Boucher (2012), previous research showed that there was a relationship between lower well-being and conflict for non-dialectical thinkers, but no relationship between those two aspects for dialectical thinkers. The research, however suggested that the results are merely correlational and there’s no evidence of causation aspect to it. Moreover, dialectical thinking was measured after the conflict, thus, causes inaccuracy andthe direction of relationship was rather questionable. Therefore, an experiment was carried out based on the present research, between the relationshipof role conflict, dialectical thinking, and well-being by experimentally manipulating role conflict and thinking style (activating conflicting or non-conflicting roles; activating dialectical or non-dialectical thinking) to reinvestigate the hypothesis, which was the activation of conflicting roles has a positive or negative effect on self-esteem and well- being and due to the different thinking styles between dialectic thinkers and non-dialectic