2 memory. Hence to understand human cognition the psychologist has to study how we think, remember, understand and produce language. Stimulus Response QUESTION: ANSWER: ha i h aia iin of China? Figure 4.1 The Cognitive Approach Focuses On the Mental Processes Going On in the Black Box Cognition is defined as the act or process of knowing in the broadest sense and more specifically as an intellectual process by which knowledge is gained through the five senses (Webster's Dictionary). Scholars who focus on cognition are called cognitive psychologists. Cognitive psychologists strongly believe that behaviourism is too limited in explaining human learning. It presents a reductionist view of learning. In other words, it reduces learning to merely providing a stimulus and focusing on an observable behavior. This is too simplistic a notion of human learning. Cognitive psychologists strongly advocate that mental processes and how it is structured should be investigated. They are interested in unraveling what is going on in the b lack box ” (see Figure 4.1). It is assumed that between the stimulus and response there are various stages of processing, each requiring a certain amount of time and many different processes. To be able to understand the internal mechanism of human thought and the processes of knowing, researchers make inferences by observing the behaviors exhibited. In other words, what is going inside the mind of learners is studied objectively from the outside of the mind. ??? SELF-CHECK a ) Explain what is meant by the ‘cognitive approach’. b) How is cognitivism different from behaviourism? c) What is the ‘black box’?