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November 23, 2014 | By Dawn |
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2| TOXIC TECH IN CHINA & INDIA RECYCLING OF ELECTRONIC WASTES IN CHINA & INDIA: WORKPLACE & ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION executive summary3 different stages of e-waste recycling processes sampled in india and china [diagram]10 published by Greenpeace Intern
4 Get Started Sign Up for Edmodo If you want to leap educational technology in a single bound, it’s important to build up the right momentum. Edmodo gives you a running start when you: 1. Create a teacher account. Available online and for Android ™ , iOS ® , and Windows ® , Edmodo is free for teachers and students, and always will be. 2. Identify your school. Every superhero has a base of operations. Tell us where yours is located and nd other superheroes in your midst. 3. Complete your prole. Upload a photo, share your backstory, and reveal your true identity to our worldwide community! Once you’re set up, you have access to everything you need to supercharge your classroom and your teaching. Superhero Secret: Download Edmodo for your mobile device and experience the power of edtech on the go, whenever and wherever you want. You’re ready to harness the power of technology in your classroom. Edmodo is here to be your trusty sidekick. We think educators are superheroes in disguise and want to help you save the day when you’re out there doing a world of good. The world’s largest K-12 network, Edmodo empowers you to build relationships with your students in an environment they know and love, collaborate with other teachers to improve learning outcomes, and discover new resources that unlock the full potential of your classroom and your own professional development. This guide will show you how simple it can be to use Edmodo to: C onnect A ssess P ersonalize E ngage
actually a bridge used to build upon what students already know to arrive at something they do not know. If scaffolding is properly administered, it will act as an enabler, not as a disabler" (Benson, 1997, p. 126). According to Greenfield (1999), The scaffold, as it is known in building construction, has five characteristics: it provides a support; it functions as a tool; it extends the range of the worker; it allows a worker to accomplish a task not otherwise possible; and it is used to selectively aid the worker where needed. (p. 118) Dixon, Carnine, and Kameenui (1993) remind us that effective scaffolds must be "gradually dismantled" in order to remain effective (p. 100). However, if scaffolds are dismantled too quickly, learning does not occur and the learner becomes frustrated in the process. You probably have noticed that we use the term scaffold as a noun rather than a verb, because a present-tense verb may imply a process that is ongoing, which places teachers and students at risk of dependency rather than independence. Guidelines for Instructional Scaffolds Over the decades that the field has been working to clarify instructional scaffolds, a number of general guidelines have been developed. In 1983, Applebee and Langer identified five features necessary to scaffold students' understanding. As you consider each of these, notice how much they have in common with differentiated instruction and Understanding by Design (Tomlinson & McTighe, 2006): . Intentionality: The task has a clear overall purpose driving any separate activity that may contribute to the whole. . Appropriateness: Instructional tasks pose problems that can be solved with help but which students could not successfully complete on their own. . Structure: Modeling and questioning activities are structured around a model of appropriate approaches to the task and lead to a natural sequence of thought and language. . Collaboration: The teacher's response to student work recasts and expands upon the students' efforts without rejecting what they have accomplished on their own. The teacher's primary role is collaborative rather than evaluative.
Copyright 2010 Eye On Education, Inc. Larchmont, NY. All rights reserved. www.eyeoneducation.com 2 of 6 4 Myths About Rigor in the Classroom • Williamson and Blackburn Dick Flanary of the National Association of Secondary School Principals described the impact by saying, “Too often, rigor becomes, ‘Let’s give more homework. Lessons must be ‘rigorous’ if they make kids suffer.’ ” (Hechinger, 2009, p. 3) 5 . “Doing more” often means doing more low-level activities, frequent repetitions of things already learned. Such narrow and rigid approaches to learning do not dene a rigorous classroom. Students learn in many different ways. Just as instruction must vary to meet the individual needs of students, so must homework. Rigorous and challenging learning experiences will vary with the student. The design of each experience will vary, as will the duration. Myth #2: Rigor Means Doing More Many parents and educators believe that a rigorous classroom is characterized by requiring students to do more than they currently do, that rigor is dened by the content of a lesson, the amount of reading, or the number of assignments. Rigor is more than just content and cannot be measured by the amount of things students must do. Tony Wagner (2008a) 6 studied classrooms across America and found that many of them were characterized by low-level, rote activity. The focus was too often on covering material or preparation for the next test. A few years ago, Ron Williamson and Howard Johnston conducted a study to nd out how teachers and parents dened rigor. What they found was that the two groups held startlingly different denitions. Teachers said that rigor meant doing more work in general, while parents said that rigor meant doing less but more in-depth work. The challenge for school leaders is how to reconcile these differences and work with teach- ers, parents, and the greater community to develop a shared vision for a rigorous school and to mobilize resources in support of improved rigor. True rigor is expecting every student to learn and perform at high levels. This requires instruction that allows students to delve deeply into their learning, to engage in critical thinking and problem-solving activities, to be curious and imaginative, and to demonstrate agility and adaptability (Wagner, 2008a) 6 . Myth #3: Rigor is Not for Everyone There is a belief that the only way to assure success for everyone is to lower standards and lessen rigor. Such beliefs often mask an underlying sense that some students are less capable and that their success will hold back those who are more capable.